Current salivary biomarkers for detection of human papilloma virus-induced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Drew H. Smith, Shahm Raslan, Michael A. Samuels, Thomas Iglesias, Isabella Buitron, Sapna Deo, Sylvia Daunert, Giovana R. Thomas, Joseph Califano, Elizabeth J. Franzmann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a key risk factor and etiology for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). HPV-induced OPSCC is rapidly increasing in incidence, with men experiencing increased mortality. When identified at an early stage, HPV-induced OPSCC can be successfully treated. Diagnosis of HPV-related OPSCC relies on an expert physical examination and invasive biopsy. Since saliva bathes the oropharyngeal mucosa and can be collected noninvasively, saliva obtained via salivary risings is an attractive body fluid for early detection of HPV-induced OPSCC. A plethora of DNA, RNA, and protein salivary biomarkers have been explored. This review discusses these markers and their robustness for detecting oncogenic HPV in OPSCC saliva samples. Methods detecting HPV DNA were more reliable than those detecting RNA, albeit both require time-consuming analyses. Salivary HPV proteomics are a new, promising focus of HPV detection research, and while more practical, lag behind nucleic acid detection methods in their development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3618-3630
Number of pages13
JournalHead and Neck
Volume43
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • HPV
  • cancer detection
  • head and neck malignancy
  • oropharyngeal cancer
  • squamous cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

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