Current advances in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

Victor M. Villegas, Luis A. Aranguren, Jaclyn L. Kovach, Stephen G. Schwartz, Harry W. Flynn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Introduction: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of permanent central visual acuity loss in persons over 65 years of age in industrialized nations. Today, intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment worldwide. Areas covered: The following review covers the current treatments and challenges of wet AMD management. It also covers emerging therapies including radiation, latest generation anti-VEGF agents, and combination therapies. Expert opinion: Current neovascular AMD therapy is aimed at decreasing the VEGF effect at the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) complex. The most important existing challenges in the treatment of neovascular AMD are improving visual outcomes, decreasing the treatment burden, and minimizing geographic atrophy. Clinicians are using many treatment strategies to minimize intravitreal injections without sacrificing visual outcomes. Combination of anti-VEGF therapy with other previously available treatments that target a different pathophysiological mechanism may be a reasonable clinical strategy to minimize intravitreal injections. Many exciting novel drugs that target newly discovered pathways associated with CNV development and progression hold clinical promise. The results of ongoing randomized clinical trials will answer the important concerns surrounding new drugs and delivery devices: safety and visual outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)273-282
Number of pages10
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • and vascular endothelial growth factor
  • retina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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