Culvert prototype made with seawater concrete: Materials characterization, monitoring, and environmental impact

Elena Redaelli, Alessandro Arrigoni, Maddalena Carsana, Giovanni Dotelli, Matteo Gastaldi, Federica Lollini, Federica Bertola, Fulvio Canonico, Antonio Nanni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Recent developments in concrete research have considered the possible advantages related to the use of seawater as mixing water for concrete production. Specifically, the SEACON-INFRAVATION project investigated the performance of seawater concrete for the construction of sustainable and durable reinforced concrete structures. Besides laboratory activities aimed at characterizing the performance of seawater concrete and corrosion behavior of various types of embedded reinforcements, a demonstration project was executed in Italy. The prototype consisted of a concrete culvert built along the A1 motorway, close to the city of Piacenza, Italy. The demonstration activities led to testing of the on-site use of seawater and assessment of the corrosion conditions of the embedded reinforcements, allowing a thorough understanding of long-term durability and sustainability. For this purpose, the prototype culvert was divided into six segments; each segment was representative of a combination of type of concrete (reference, seawater, and recycled-asphalt-pavement concrete) and type of reinforcement (carbon steel, austenitic and duplex stainless steels, and glass fiber-reinforced polymer). This article presents concrete mix designs, materials characterization, embedded probes used to monitor the corrosion of the reinforcements, and test results obtained at various stages of execution and service conditions. In addition, a sampling campaign, one year from construction, is included. Finally, mention is made of the life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analyses performed to quantify the long-term benefits of seawater concrete combined with corrosion-resistant reinforcement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAdvances in Civil Engineering Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 7 2019


  • Corrosion
  • Demo project
  • Glass fiber-reinforced polymer
  • Mix design
  • Monitoring
  • Reinforced concrete
  • Seawater
  • Stainless steel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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