Crumpling of graphene oxide through evaporative confinement in nanodroplets produced by electrohydrodynamic aerosolization

Shalinee Kavadiya, Ramesh Raliya, Michael Schrock, Pratim Biswas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Restacking of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets results in loss of surface area and creates limitations in its widespread use for applications. Previously, two-dimensional (2D) GO sheets have been crumpled into 3D structures to prevent restacking using different techniques. However, synthesis of nanometer size crumpled graphene particles and their direct deposition onto a substrate have not been demonstrated under room temperature condition so far. In this work, the evaporative crumpling of GO sheets into very small size (<100 nm) crumpled structures using an electrohydrodynamic atomization technique is described. Systematic study of the effect of different electrohydrodynamic atomization parameters, such as (1) substrate-to-needle distance, (2) GO concentration in the precursor solution, and (3) flow rate (droplet size) on the GO crumpling, is explored. Crumpled GO (CGO) particles are characterized online using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and off-line using electron microscopy. The relation between the confinement force and the factors affecting the crumpled structure is established. Furthermore, to expand the application horizons of the structure, crumpled GO–TiO2 nanocomposites are synthesized. The method described here allows a simple and controlled production of graphene-based particles/composites with direct deposition onto any kind of substrate for a variety of applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number43
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Crumpled graphene oxide
  • Crumpling
  • Crumpling force
  • Electrospray
  • Graphene oxide
  • Synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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