Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of an Arabic version of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index

Hisham A. Alsanawi, Ahmad Alghadir, Shahnawaz Anwer, Kathryn Roach, Alia Alawaji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Arabic version of the shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). This was an observational reliability and validity study. We recruited 64 patients with shoulder pain and dysfunction with a wide variety of diagnoses. Patients completed the following questionnaires: Arabic SPADI, Quick Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand (Quick DASH), and the numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain. The active shoulder range of motion (ROM) was also assessed. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach α. Reproducibility was assessed by asking the patients to complete another SPADI questionnaire 2 days after the first. Validity was assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the SPADI and the Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The Cronbach α values for the pain score (0.96), disability score (0.98), and total score (0.98) of Arabic SPADI were all high. Similarly, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for the pain, disability, and total score (ICC, 0.87, 0.96, and 0.95, respectively) of Arabic SPADI were all high. With respect to validity, there was a moderate to strong correlation between the Arabic SPADI and the Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The translated version of SPADI in the Arabic language showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Validity was shown by substantial correlations between SPADI and Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The Arabic SPADI is recommended for the evaluation of patients with shoulder dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)270-275
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Rehabilitation Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 19 2015



  • Arabic
  • disability
  • pain
  • reliability
  • shoulder
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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