Critical Appraisal of Neuroprotection Trials in Head Injury: What Have We Learned?

Christos M. Tolias, M. Ross Bullock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

123 Scopus citations


To date, despite very encouraging preclinical results, almost all phase II/III clinical neuroprotection trials in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have failed to show any consistent improvement in outcome for TBI patients. To understand the reasons behind such developments we need to review and evaluate the evolution of trial design as a result of our changing understanding of the pathophysiology of brain cell death and progress of translational research from the laboratory bench to the bedside. This paper attempts to critically appraise these neuroprotection trials, rationalize the paucity of effectiveness, review any recent developments in the field, and try to draw some conclusions on how to move forward.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-79
Number of pages9
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Head injury
  • neuroprotection
  • translational research
  • trial design
  • trials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Critical Appraisal of Neuroprotection Trials in Head Injury: What Have We Learned?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this