CQ-VAE: Coordinate Quantized VAE for Uncertainty Estimation with Application to Disk Shape Analysis from Lumbar Spine MRI Images

Linchen Qian, Jiasong Chen, Timur Urakov, Weiyong Gu, Liang Liang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Ambiguity is inevitable in medical images, which often results in different image interpretations (e.g. object boundaries or segmentation maps) from different human experts. Thus, a model that learns the ambiguity and outputs a probability distribution of the target, would be valuable for medical applications to assess the uncertainty of diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a powerful generative model to learn a representation of ambiguity and to generate probabilistic outputs. Our model, named Coordinate Quantization Variational Autoencoder (CQ-VAE) employs a discrete latent space with an internal discrete probability distribution by quantizing the coordinates of a continuous latent space. As a result, the output distribution from CQ-VAE is discrete. During training, Gumbel-Softmax sampling is used to enable backpropagation through the discrete latent space. A matching algorithm is used to establish the correspondence between model-generated samples and ground-truth samples, which makes a trade-off between the ability to generate new samples and the ability to represent training samples. Besides these probabilistic components to generate possible outputs, our model has a deterministic path to output the best estimation. We demonstrated our method on a lumbar disk image dataset, and the results show that our CQ-VAE can learn lumbar disk shape variation and uncertainty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - 19th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, ICMLA 2020
EditorsM. Arif Wani, Feng Luo, Xiaolin Li, Dejing Dou, Francesco Bonchi
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages580-585
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781728184708
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020
Event19th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, ICMLA 2020 - Virtual, Miami, United States
Duration: Dec 14 2020Dec 17 2020

Publication series

NameProceedings - 19th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, ICMLA 2020

Conference

Conference19th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, ICMLA 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Miami
Period12/14/2012/17/20

Keywords

  • discrete latent space
  • shape regression
  • uncertainty
  • variational autoencoder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Hardware and Architecture

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