COVID-19 and metabolic disease: mechanisms and clinical management

Charlotte Steenblock, Peter E.H. Schwarz, Barbara Ludwig, Andreas Linkermann, Paul Zimmet, Konstantin Kulebyakin, Vsevolod A. Tkachuk, Alexander G. Markov, Hendrik Lehnert, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Hannes Rietzsch, Roman N. Rodionov, Kamlesh Khunti, David Hopkins, Andreas L. Birkenfeld, Bernhard Boehm, Richard I.G. Holt, Jay S. Skyler, J. Hans DeVries, Eric RenardRobert H. Eckel, K. George M.M. Alberti, Bruno Geloneze, Juliana C. Chan, Jean Claude Mbanya, Henry C. Onyegbutulem, Ambady Ramachandran, Abdul Basit, Mohamed Hassanein, Gavin Bewick, Giatgen A. Spinas, Felix Beuschlein, Rüdiger Landgraf, Francesco Rubino, Geltrude Mingrone, Stefan R. Bornstein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)786-798
Number of pages13
JournalThe Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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