Background. Preliminary reports suggest that patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia may benefit from the addition of corticosteroid treatment to antibiotic therapy. Methods. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of adjunctive cortico-steroids in patients with AIDS and severe P. carinii pneumonia. Patients with marked abnormalities in gas exchange who had been treated with antibiotics for less than 72 hours were randomly assigned to receive either methylprednisolone (40 mg) or placebo every 6 hours for 7 days, in addition to treatment for 21 days with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcome measures were survival until hospital discharge and the development of respiratory failure. Results. Twenty-three patients were enrolled in the study; there were no significant differences in base-line clinical or laboratory measures between the two treatment groups. Of 12 patients treated with corticosteroids, 9 (75 percent) survived until hospital discharge, as compared with only 2 of 11 placebo recipients (18 percent) (P<0.008). Respiratory failure developed in nine placebo recipients, as compared with only three patients treated with corticosteroids (P<0.008). No patient required the interruption or discontinuation of corticosteroid or antibiotic treatment because of toxicity or a complicating event. Because of the marked difference in survival, it was deemed unethical to continue the trial, and the study was terminated. Conclusions. Early adjunctive corticosteroid therapy can improve survival and decrease the occurrence of respiratory failure in patients with AIDS and severe P. carinii pneumonia.
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