Corneal elasticity after oxygen enriched high intensity corneal cross linking assessed using atomic force microscopy

Vasilios F. Diakonis, Nikita Y. Likht, Nilufer Yesilirmak, Desiree Delgado, Andreas E. Karatapanis, Yener Yesilirmak, Christopher Fraker, Sonia H Yoo, Noel Marysa Ziebarth

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess anterior and mid corneal stromal elasticity after high intensity (HI) corneal cross linking (CXL), with and without oxygen (O2) enrichment, and compare these results to conventional CXL. Experiments were performed on 25 pairs of human cadaver eyes, divided into four different groups. Group 1 included corneas that did not receive treatment and served as controls; Group 2 included corneas that received conventional CXL treatment (Dresden Protocol: corneal epithelial debridement, 30 min of riboflavin pretreatment followed by 30 min of exposure to 3 mW/cm2 of ultraviolet light); Group 3 included corneas that received HI CXL treatment (corneal epithelial debridement, 30 min of riboflavin pretreatment followed by 3 min of exposure to 30mW/cm2 of ultraviolet light); and Group 4 included corneas that received the same treatment as Group 3, except that they were enriched with oxygen (4 L per minute pure O2 gas stream) during ultraviolet irradiation. In each group, corneas were subdivided to assess anterior stromal elasticity and mid stromal elasticity. Corneal stromal elasticity was quantified using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) through micro-indentation. Young's modulus for the anterior corneal stroma was 14.5 ± 6.0 kPa, 80.7 ± 44.6 kPa, 36.6 ± 10.5 kPa, and 30.6 ± 9.2 kPa, for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Young's modulus for the mid corneal stroma was 5.8 ± 2.0 kPa, 20.7 ± 4.3 kPa, 12.1 ± 4.9 kPa, and 11.7 ± 3.7 kPa, for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In the anterior stromal region, conventional CXL demonstrated a significantly different result from the control, whereas the two HI CXL protocols were not significantly different from the control. There were no statistical differences between the two HI CXL protocols, although only the HI CXL protocol with O2 enrichment was significantly different from the conventional CXL group. In the mid stromal region, once again only conventional CXL demonstrated a significantly different result from the control. There were no statistical differences between the two HI CXL protocols, and both HI CXL protocols were significantly different from the conventional CXL group. Oxygen enriched HI CXL seems to offer similar changes in corneal elasticity when compared to HI CXL without the presence O2. Conventional CXL increases corneal stiffness more than HI CXL both with and without O2 enrichment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-55
Number of pages5
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Volume153
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

Fingerprint

Atomic Force Microscopy
Elasticity
Cornea
Oxygen
Corneal Stroma
Riboflavin
Elastic Modulus
Debridement
Ultraviolet Rays
Clinical Protocols
Cadaver
Therapeutics
Gases

Keywords

  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Cornea crosslinking
  • Corneal elasticity
  • Ultraviolet light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Corneal elasticity after oxygen enriched high intensity corneal cross linking assessed using atomic force microscopy. / Diakonis, Vasilios F.; Likht, Nikita Y.; Yesilirmak, Nilufer; Delgado, Desiree; Karatapanis, Andreas E.; Yesilirmak, Yener; Fraker, Christopher; Yoo, Sonia H; Ziebarth, Noel Marysa.

In: Experimental Eye Research, Vol. 153, 01.12.2016, p. 51-55.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Diakonis, Vasilios F. ; Likht, Nikita Y. ; Yesilirmak, Nilufer ; Delgado, Desiree ; Karatapanis, Andreas E. ; Yesilirmak, Yener ; Fraker, Christopher ; Yoo, Sonia H ; Ziebarth, Noel Marysa. / Corneal elasticity after oxygen enriched high intensity corneal cross linking assessed using atomic force microscopy. In: Experimental Eye Research. 2016 ; Vol. 153. pp. 51-55.
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AU - Diakonis, Vasilios F.

AU - Likht, Nikita Y.

AU - Yesilirmak, Nilufer

AU - Delgado, Desiree

AU - Karatapanis, Andreas E.

AU - Yesilirmak, Yener

AU - Fraker, Christopher

AU - Yoo, Sonia H

AU - Ziebarth, Noel Marysa

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N2 - The purpose of this study was to assess anterior and mid corneal stromal elasticity after high intensity (HI) corneal cross linking (CXL), with and without oxygen (O2) enrichment, and compare these results to conventional CXL. Experiments were performed on 25 pairs of human cadaver eyes, divided into four different groups. Group 1 included corneas that did not receive treatment and served as controls; Group 2 included corneas that received conventional CXL treatment (Dresden Protocol: corneal epithelial debridement, 30 min of riboflavin pretreatment followed by 30 min of exposure to 3 mW/cm2 of ultraviolet light); Group 3 included corneas that received HI CXL treatment (corneal epithelial debridement, 30 min of riboflavin pretreatment followed by 3 min of exposure to 30mW/cm2 of ultraviolet light); and Group 4 included corneas that received the same treatment as Group 3, except that they were enriched with oxygen (4 L per minute pure O2 gas stream) during ultraviolet irradiation. In each group, corneas were subdivided to assess anterior stromal elasticity and mid stromal elasticity. Corneal stromal elasticity was quantified using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) through micro-indentation. Young's modulus for the anterior corneal stroma was 14.5 ± 6.0 kPa, 80.7 ± 44.6 kPa, 36.6 ± 10.5 kPa, and 30.6 ± 9.2 kPa, for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Young's modulus for the mid corneal stroma was 5.8 ± 2.0 kPa, 20.7 ± 4.3 kPa, 12.1 ± 4.9 kPa, and 11.7 ± 3.7 kPa, for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In the anterior stromal region, conventional CXL demonstrated a significantly different result from the control, whereas the two HI CXL protocols were not significantly different from the control. There were no statistical differences between the two HI CXL protocols, although only the HI CXL protocol with O2 enrichment was significantly different from the conventional CXL group. In the mid stromal region, once again only conventional CXL demonstrated a significantly different result from the control. There were no statistical differences between the two HI CXL protocols, and both HI CXL protocols were significantly different from the conventional CXL group. Oxygen enriched HI CXL seems to offer similar changes in corneal elasticity when compared to HI CXL without the presence O2. Conventional CXL increases corneal stiffness more than HI CXL both with and without O2 enrichment.

AB - The purpose of this study was to assess anterior and mid corneal stromal elasticity after high intensity (HI) corneal cross linking (CXL), with and without oxygen (O2) enrichment, and compare these results to conventional CXL. Experiments were performed on 25 pairs of human cadaver eyes, divided into four different groups. Group 1 included corneas that did not receive treatment and served as controls; Group 2 included corneas that received conventional CXL treatment (Dresden Protocol: corneal epithelial debridement, 30 min of riboflavin pretreatment followed by 30 min of exposure to 3 mW/cm2 of ultraviolet light); Group 3 included corneas that received HI CXL treatment (corneal epithelial debridement, 30 min of riboflavin pretreatment followed by 3 min of exposure to 30mW/cm2 of ultraviolet light); and Group 4 included corneas that received the same treatment as Group 3, except that they were enriched with oxygen (4 L per minute pure O2 gas stream) during ultraviolet irradiation. In each group, corneas were subdivided to assess anterior stromal elasticity and mid stromal elasticity. Corneal stromal elasticity was quantified using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) through micro-indentation. Young's modulus for the anterior corneal stroma was 14.5 ± 6.0 kPa, 80.7 ± 44.6 kPa, 36.6 ± 10.5 kPa, and 30.6 ± 9.2 kPa, for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Young's modulus for the mid corneal stroma was 5.8 ± 2.0 kPa, 20.7 ± 4.3 kPa, 12.1 ± 4.9 kPa, and 11.7 ± 3.7 kPa, for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In the anterior stromal region, conventional CXL demonstrated a significantly different result from the control, whereas the two HI CXL protocols were not significantly different from the control. There were no statistical differences between the two HI CXL protocols, although only the HI CXL protocol with O2 enrichment was significantly different from the conventional CXL group. In the mid stromal region, once again only conventional CXL demonstrated a significantly different result from the control. There were no statistical differences between the two HI CXL protocols, and both HI CXL protocols were significantly different from the conventional CXL group. Oxygen enriched HI CXL seems to offer similar changes in corneal elasticity when compared to HI CXL without the presence O2. Conventional CXL increases corneal stiffness more than HI CXL both with and without O2 enrichment.

KW - Atomic force microscopy

KW - Cornea crosslinking

KW - Corneal elasticity

KW - Ultraviolet light

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