During World War II many infants and young children were temporarily or permanently separated from their parents. Infants who were orphaned and later hospitalized were described as undergoing “hospitalism” or anaclitic depression (Spitz, 1946). Children placed in residential nurseries or hospital wards commonly showed a predictable sequence of behaviors during these separations (Bowlby, 1969; Robertson & Robertson, 1971). Bowlby labeled these phases protest, despair, and detachment.
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