Conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: Its effect on outcome

Paulo Soltoski, Tomas Salerno, Leon Levinsky, Susan Schmid, Saira Hasnain, Timothy Diesfeld, Carber Huang, Mohammed Akhter, O. Alnoweiser, Jacob Bergsland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


The surgical outcome of patients requiring conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during myocardial revascularization using the less invasive surgical approach (LISA) was assessed. The LISA was recently introduced as a technique for complete myocardial revascularization without CPB. It combines avoidance of CPB with the versatility of a median sternotomy for access to all coronary vessels. We have previously demonstrated reduced risk-adjusted mortality and complications in off-CPB coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using LISA compared to standard myocardial revascularization. From January to December 1997, 1210 patients underwent isolated CABG at our institution. Of these patients, 832 (63%) were scheduled as on-CPB cases and 378 (37%) as off-CPB. Of the off-CPB patients, 48 were converted to CPB. Team A surgeons used LISA as their primary strategy for CABG whereas team B surgeons used off-CPB CABG in selected patients. Conversions were divided in three classes: Class I patients were converted when the surgeon considered complete revascularization impossible off-CPB; Class II patients were converted due to hemodynamic instability during the procedure; and Class III patients were converted due to graft malfunction, determined by flow measurements or clinical evidence. There were four deaths. All had perioperative infarctions and required intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). Conversion to CPB occurred in up to 25% of patients scheduled for off-CPB CABG. When off-CPB cases are done using the comprehensive LISA technique and modern technology, conversion rates may be reduced to 11%. Conversion is in general well tolerated except when it is instituted for graft malfunction combined with hemodynamic instability or collapse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)328-334
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of cardiac surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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