Contemporary management of stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

Mark S. Soloway, Mario Sofer, Anil Vaidya

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

181 Scopus citations


Purpose: Transitional cell carcinoma involving the lamina propria (stage T1) is associated with a high recurrence and progression rate with implications for patient survival and quality of life. A better understanding of the natural history of and treatment alternatives for this tumor may improve the outcome in patients with this stage of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Literature of the last decade was comprehensively reviewed in regard to clinical and pathological diagnosis, adjuvant treatments, prognosis, and the role and timing of cystectomy. The information was gathered from MEDLINE, current urology journals, abstracts from recent urological meetings and personal experience. Results: High grade and the depth of lamina propria invasion are important prognostic factors. Early diagnosis and accurate pathological assessment are essential for determining the most adequate treatment pathway. Initial treatment consists of complete transurethral resection and adjuvant treatment with intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Immediate postoperative instillation of mitomycin C decreases the risk of recurrence possibly related to tumor implantation. Intravesical treatment does not substantially decrease the chance of progression. Lack of a complete response to BCG at 3 to 6 months, high grade, the depth of lamina propria invasion, the association of carcinoma in situ and prostate mucosa or duct involvement represent significant predictors for progression. Cystectomy should be suggested for recurrent stage T1 tumor after BCG, new onset or persistent carcinoma in situ, tumor located at a difficult site for resection, prostatic duct or stromal involvement and muscle invasion. Conclusions: High grade stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor. Complete resection followed by immediate mitomycin C instillation and 6 weekly BCG instillations results in an acceptably low recurrence and progression rate. Rigorous long-term surveillance and continuous reconsideration of radical cystectomy in concordance with the evolution of the disease are essential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1573-1583
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4 I
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Bladder
  • Bladder neoplasms
  • Carcinoma, transitional cell
  • Mitomycin
  • Mycobacterium bovis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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