Construct Validity of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M) in Adults With Lower Limb Amputation

Brian J. Hafner, Ignacio A. Gaunaurd, Sara J. Morgan, Dagmar Amtmann, Rana Salem, Robert S. Gailey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Objective To assess construct validity of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M), a self-report mobility measure for people with lower limb amputation (LLA). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Private prosthetic clinics (n=37). Participants Current lower limb prosthesis users (N=199; mean age ± SD, 55.4±14.3y; 71.4% men) were assessed before receiving a replacement prosthesis, prosthetic socket, and/or prosthetic knee. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Convergent construct validity was examined using correlations between participants’ PLUS-M T-scores and measures of physical function, mobility, and balance, including the Amputee Mobility Predictor (AMP), timed Up and Go (TUG), Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System–Physical Function (PROMIS-PF), Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire–Mobility Subscale (PEQ-MS), and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. Known-groups construct validity was evaluated by comparing differences in PLUS-M T-scores among participants grouped by Medicare Functional Classification Level (MFCL). Results PLUS-M T-scores demonstrated a moderate positive relationship with AMP scores (ρ=.54, P<.001) and a moderate negative relationship with TUG times (ρ=−.56, P<.001). The PLUS-M also showed a strong positive relationship with PEQ-MS scores (ρ=.78, P<.001), ABC Scale scores (ρ=.81, P<.001), and PROMIS-PF T-scores (ρ=.81, P<.001). Significant differences (P<.05) in PLUS-M T-scores were found among groups of people classified by different MFCLs. Conclusions Study results support the validity of the PLUS-M as a self-report measure of prosthetic mobility. Correlations between PLUS-M and measures of physical function, mobility, and balance indicate convergent construct validity. Similarly, significant differences in PLUS-M T-scores across MFCL groups provide evidence of known-groups construct validity. In summary, evidence indicates that PLUS-M has good construct validity among people with LLA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)277-285
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017


  • Amputation
  • Artificial limbs
  • Motor activity
  • Movement
  • Outcome assessment (health care)
  • Rehabilitation
  • Self report

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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