Construct equivalence across groups: An unexplored issue in mentoring research

Ekin K. Pellegrini, Terri A. Scandura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Ensuring construct comparability is a prerequisite for testing cross-group differences, yet this assumption is rarely tested in mentoring research. More studies testing for factorial invariance are needed for the construct validation of mentoring. Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to investigate the factorial stability of the Mentoring Functions Questionnaire (MFQ-9) across two groups: protégés who are satisfied with their mentor and those who are not. CFA results supported a three-factor structure for the MFQ-9 composed of the dimensions of vocational support, psychosocial support, and role modeling. However, tests of invariance demonstrated nonequivalence for five item-pair measurements. Overall, the MFQ-9 demonstrated excellent psychometric properties with unsatisfied protégés; however, the instrument may need further development for use with satisfied protégés.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)323-335
Number of pages13
JournalEducational and Psychological Measurement
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2005


  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Measurement equivalence
  • Mentoring
  • Protégé satisfaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematics (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology(all)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)


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