Conjugation of carbon dots with β-galactosidase enzyme: Surface chemistry and use in biosensing

Shiv K. Sharma, Miodrag Micic, Shanghao Li, Benjamin Hoar, Suraj Paudyal, Elsayed M. Zahran, Roger M. Leblanc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Nanoparticles have been conjugated to biological systems for numerous applications such as self-assembly, sensing, imaging, and therapy. Development of more reliable and robust biosensors that exhibit high response rate, increased detection limit, and enhanced useful lifetime is in high demand. We have developed a sensing platform by the conjugation of β-galactosidase, a crucial enzyme, with lab-synthesized gel-like carbon dots (CDs) which have high luminescence, photostability, and easy surface functionalization. We found that the conjugated enzyme exhibited higher stability towards temperature and pH changes in comparison to the native enzyme. This enriched property of the enzyme was distinctly used to develop a stable, reliable, robust biosensor. The detection limit of the biosensor was found to be 2.9 × 10−4 M, whereas its sensitivity was 0.81 µA·mmol−1·cm−2. Further, we used the Langmuir monolayer technique to understand the surface properties of the conjugated enzyme. It was found that the conjugate was highly stable at the air/subphase interface which additionally reinforces the suitability of the use of the conjugated enzyme for the biosensing applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3275
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 9 2019


  • Biosensor
  • Carbon dots
  • Conjugation
  • Lactose
  • Langmuir monolayer
  • β-galactosidase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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