Congenital micropenis: Long-term medical, surgical and psychosexual follow-up of individuals raised male or female

Amy B. Wisniewski, Claude J. Migeon, John P. Gearhart, John A. Rock, Gary D. Berkovitz, Leslie P. Plotnick, Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, John Money

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Objectives: To document long-term medical, surgical and psychosexual outcome of individuals with congenital micropenis (13 males, 5 females). Methods: Physical measurements from childhood were collected retrospectively from medical records and at adulthood by physical examination. An adult psychosexual assessment was conducted with a written questionnaire and oral discussion. Results: Adult penile length was below the normal mean in all men. Three women had vaginoplasty resulting in normal length. All men reported good or fair erections but 50% were dissatisfied with their genitalia. Dissatisfaction with body image resulted from having a small penis (66%), inadequate body hair (50%), gynecomastia (33%) and youthful appearance (33%). Ten men were heterosexual, 1 homosexual and 2 bisexual. Among women, 4 (80%) were dissatisfied with their genitalia. Three women reported average libido with orgasm and were also heterosexual. Two women had no sexual interest or experience. Finally, males were masculine and females feminine in their gender-role identity, and both groups were satisfied with their sex of rearing. Conclusions: Regarding choice of gender, male sex of rearing can result in satisfactory genito-sexual function. Female gender can also result in success, however it requires extensive feminizing surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-11
Number of pages9
JournalHormone Research
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Dec 1 2001


  • Estrogen
  • Gender
  • Intersex
  • Micropenis
  • Psychosexual
  • Sexual function
  • Sexuality
  • Testosterone
  • Vaginoplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology


Dive into the research topics of 'Congenital micropenis: Long-term medical, surgical and psychosexual follow-up of individuals raised male or female'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this