Congenital hand anomalies: Etiology, classification, and treatment

Kriya Gishen, Morad Askari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Congenital hand anomalies have a wide range of presentations and functional consequences. Understanding and treatment of these deformities require an understanding of embryology of upper-extremity development. In this report, common anomalies of the hand and upper extremity have been reviewed according to the International Federation for Societies for Surgery of the Hand classification system. We examine the epidemiology, etiology, functional consequences, and current treatments available for each anomaly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)284-294
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • Congenital hand anomalies
  • deficiency
  • duplication
  • hand deformity
  • hypoplasia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Surgery


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