Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common sensory defects, of which X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) accounts for only 1–2%. While a COL4A6 variant has been reported in a single Hungarian family with NSHL associated with inner ear malformation, causative role of COL4A6 variants and their phenotypic consequences in NSHL remain elusive. Here we report two families in which we identified a male member with X-linked HL. Each has inherited a rare hemizygous COL4A6 variant from their respective mothers, NM_001287758.1: c.3272 G > C (p.Gly1091Ala) and c.951 + 1 G > C. An in vitro minigene splicing assay revealed that c.951 + 1 G > T leads to skipping of exon 15, strongly suggesting a pathogenic role for this variant in the HL phenotype. The p.Gly1091Ala variant is classified as a variant of unknown significance based on the variant interpretation guidelines. This report provides evidence for variants in the COL4A6 gene resulting in X-linked NSHL. It highlights the importance of in-depth genetic studies in all family members in addition to the proband, especially in multiplex families, to determine the precise etiology of HL.
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