Conductive heat flow at the TAG active hydrothermal mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys

Keir Becker, R. Von Herzen, J. Kirklin, R. Evans, D. Kadko, M. Kinoshita, O. Matsubayashi, R. Mills, A. Schultz, P. Rona

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ± 510 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m2), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the "Kremlin" area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- >25 W/m2) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m2) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (< 20 mW/m2) 20-50 m west of the smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3463-3466
Number of pages4
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Volume23
Issue number23
StatePublished - 1996

Fingerprint

submersible
heat transmission
heat flow
submarine hydrothermal vents
black smoker
transponders
thermistors
carbonate sediment
thermal conductivity
drilling
Ocean Drilling Program
low flow
bottom water
terrace
sulfides
recharge
plateaus
carbonates
sediments
indication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Becker, K., Von Herzen, R., Kirklin, J., Evans, R., Kadko, D., Kinoshita, M., ... Rona, P. (1996). Conductive heat flow at the TAG active hydrothermal mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys. Geophysical Research Letters, 23(23), 3463-3466.

Conductive heat flow at the TAG active hydrothermal mound : Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys. / Becker, Keir; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.

In: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 23, No. 23, 1996, p. 3463-3466.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Becker, K, Von Herzen, R, Kirklin, J, Evans, R, Kadko, D, Kinoshita, M, Matsubayashi, O, Mills, R, Schultz, A & Rona, P 1996, 'Conductive heat flow at the TAG active hydrothermal mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys', Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 3463-3466.
Becker, Keir ; Von Herzen, R. ; Kirklin, J. ; Evans, R. ; Kadko, D. ; Kinoshita, M. ; Matsubayashi, O. ; Mills, R. ; Schultz, A. ; Rona, P. / Conductive heat flow at the TAG active hydrothermal mound : Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys. In: Geophysical Research Letters. 1996 ; Vol. 23, No. 23. pp. 3463-3466.
@article{6b26603349754d62885dffca3fcfc0d1,
title = "Conductive heat flow at the TAG active hydrothermal mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys",
abstract = "We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ± 510 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m2), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the {"}Kremlin{"} area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- >25 W/m2) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m2) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (< 20 mW/m2) 20-50 m west of the smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.",
author = "Keir Becker and {Von Herzen}, R. and J. Kirklin and R. Evans and D. Kadko and M. Kinoshita and O. Matsubayashi and R. Mills and A. Schultz and P. Rona",
year = "1996",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "23",
pages = "3463--3466",
journal = "Geophysical Research Letters",
issn = "0094-8276",
publisher = "American Geophysical Union",
number = "23",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Conductive heat flow at the TAG active hydrothermal mound

T2 - Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys

AU - Becker, Keir

AU - Von Herzen, R.

AU - Kirklin, J.

AU - Evans, R.

AU - Kadko, D.

AU - Kinoshita, M.

AU - Matsubayashi, O.

AU - Mills, R.

AU - Schultz, A.

AU - Rona, P.

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ± 510 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m2), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the "Kremlin" area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- >25 W/m2) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m2) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (< 20 mW/m2) 20-50 m west of the smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

AB - We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ± 510 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m2), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the "Kremlin" area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- >25 W/m2) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m2) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (< 20 mW/m2) 20-50 m west of the smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030288556&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030288556&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0030288556

VL - 23

SP - 3463

EP - 3466

JO - Geophysical Research Letters

JF - Geophysical Research Letters

SN - 0094-8276

IS - 23

ER -