Because of its accessibility, skin has been among the first organs analyzed using DNA microarrays; psoriasis, melanomas, carcinomas, chronic wound biopsies, and epidermal keratinocytes in culture have been intensely investigated. Skin has everything: stem cells, differentiation, signaling, inflammation, diseases, cancer, etc. Here we provide step-by-step instructions for bioinformatics analysis of transcriptional profiling of skin. Specifically, we describe the use of GCOS and RMA programs for initial normalization and selection of differentially expressed genes, DAVID and LOLA programs for annotation of genes, and statistically relevant identification of over- and under-represented functional and biological categories in identified gene sets, L2L and Venn diagrams for comparing multiple lists of genes, and oPOSSUM for identification of statistically over-represented transcription factor binding sites in the promoter regions of gene sets. The work can be a primer for researchers embarking on skinomics, the comprehensive analysis of transcriptional changes in the skin.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology