Complications from radiotherapy dose escalation in prostate cancer: Preliminary results of a randomized trial

Mark R. Storey, Alan Pollack, Gunar Zagars, Lewis Smith, John Antolak, Isaac Rosen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

365 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To compare early and late side effects in prostate cancer patients with Stage T1b-T3 disease randomized to receive 70 Gy or 78 Gy. Methods: There were 189 patients randomized with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, that were available for this analysis. All patients were initially treated with a 4-field box to an isocenter dose of 46 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. In the 70-Gy arm, treatment was continued to a reduced volume using a 4-field box technique. In the 78-Gy arm, treatment was continued to a reduced volume using a conformal 6-field arrangement. Side effects were graded on a 1-4 scale, adapted from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force criteria. Results: No significant differences in acute rectal or bladder toxicity were seen between the two treatment techniques (p > 0.6 for all comparisons). The 5-year Kaplan-Meier risks of Grade 2 or higher late bladder toxicity were 20% and 9% for 70-Gy and 78-Gy groups, respectively (log rank, p = 0.8). The 5-year risks of Grade 2 or higher late rectal toxicity were 14% and 21% for 70 Gy and 78 Gy, respectively (p = 0.4). Dose-volume histogram analysis of the 78-Gy patients showed a significant correlation between the percentage of rectum irradiated to 70 Gy or greater and the likelihood of developing late rectal complications. Patients with more than 25% of the rectum receiving 70 Gy or greater had a 5-year risk of Grade 2 or higher complications of 37% compared to 13% for patients with 25% or less (p = 0.05). All three Grade 3 complications occurred when greater than 30% of the rectum received 70 Gy or more. Conclusion: The overall rate of complications was similar in both treatment arms. However, there is evidence for a significant increase in late rectal complications when more than 25% of the rectum received 70 Gy or greater. This parameter may serve as a benchmark for the design of future three-dimensional conformal trials. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)635-642
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume48
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2000
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Dose escalation
  • Prostate cancer
  • Radiotherapy
  • Rectal complications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiation

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