Complications and Revision Rates in Minimally Invasive Robotic-Guided Versus Fluoroscopic-Guided Spinal Fusions: The MIS ReFRESH Prospective Comparative Study

Christopher R. Good, Lindsay Orosz, Samuel R. Schroerlucke, Andrew Cannestra, Jae Y. Lim, Victor W. Hsu, Faissal Zahrawi, Hunaldo J. Villalobos, Pedro M. Ramirez, Thomas Sweeney, Michael Y. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, partially randomized. OBJECTIVE: Assess rates of complications, revision surgery, and radiation between Mazor robotic-guidance (RG) and fluoro-guidance (FG). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Minimally invasive surgery MIS ReFRESH is the first study designed to compare RG and FG techniques in adult minimally invasive surgery (MIS) lumbar fusions. METHODS: Primary endpoints were analyzed at 1 year follow-up. Analysis of variables through Cox logistic regression and a Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve of surgical complications. RESULTS: Nine sites enrolled 485 patients: 374 (RG arm) and 111 (FG arm). 93.2% of patients had more than 1 year f/u. There were no differences for sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, diabetes, or tumor. Mean age of RG patients was 59.0 versus 62.5 for FG (P = 0.009) and body mass index (BMI) was 31.2 versus 28.1 (P< 0.001). Percentage of smokers was almost double in the RG (15.2% vs. 7.2%, P = 0.029). Surgical time was similar (skin-to-skin time/no. of screws) at 24.9 minutes RG and 22.9 FG (P = 0.550). Fluoroscopy during surgery/no. of screws was 15.5 seconds RG versus 35.4 seconds FG, (15 seconds average reduction). Fluoroscopy time during instrumentation/no. of screws was 3.6 seconds RG versus 17.8 seconds FG showing an 80% average reduction of fluoro time/screw in RG (P < 0.001). Within 1 year follow-up, there were 39 (10.4%) surgical complications RG versus 39 (35.1%) FG, and 8 (2.1%) revisions RG versus 7 (6.3%) FG. Cox regression analysis including age, sex, BMI, CCI, and no. of screws, demonstrated that the hazard ratio (HR) for complication was 5.8 times higher FG versus RG (95% CI: 3.5-9.6, P < 0.001). HR for revision surgery was 11.0 times higher FG versus RG cases (95% CI 2.9-41.2, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Mazor robotic-guidance was found to have a 5.8 times lower risk of a surgical complication and 11.0 times lower risk for revision surgery. Surgical time was similar between groups and robotic-guidance reduced fluoro time per screw by 80% (approximately 1 min/case).Level of Evidence: 2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1661-1668
Number of pages8
JournalSPINE
Volume46
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology

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