Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: Long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome

Amy B. Wisniewski, Claude J. Migeon, Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, John P. Gearhart, Gary D. Berkovitz, Terry R. Brown, John Money

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

278 Scopus citations


Controversy concerning the most appropriate treatment guidelines for intersex children currently exists. This is due to a lack of long-term information regarding medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome in affected adults. We have assessed by questionnaire and medical examination the physical and psychosexual status of 14 women with documented complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). We have also determined participant knowledge of CAIS as well as opinion of medical and surgical treatment. As a whole, secondary sexual development of these women was satisfactory, as judged by both participants and physicians. In general, most women were satisfied with their psychosexual development and sexual function. Factors reported to contribute to dissatisfaction were sexual abuse in one case and marked obesity in another. All of the women who participated were satisfied with having been raised as females, and none desired a gender reassignment. Although not perfect, the medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcomes for women with CAIS were satisfactory; however, specific ways for improving long-term treatment of this population were identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2664-2669
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


Dive into the research topics of 'Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: Long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this