The clinical definition of Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on cardinal motor features including bradykinesia as well as an additional symptom of tremor, postural instability, or rigidity. Evidence from neuropathological, imaging, and clinical research suggests a premotor, early phase of PD pathology. Further understanding of the earliest biomarkers of PD is crucial for the development of neuroprotective, disease modifying, cognitive, and psychiatric interventions. Recent research has explored early non-motor markers of PD pathology. This issue is especially timely as the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society has recently provided a research definition for prodromal PD which includes combinations of prodromal markers and risk factors aimed at identifying target populations for disease-prevention trials. In this review of early PD, we will outline early non-motor symptoms, early cognitive and neuropsychiatric features, neuropsychological assessment strategies, emerging evidence for early biomarkers, and treatment recommendations.
- Parkinson's disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health