Cognitions, Coping, and Social Environment Predict Adjustment to Pain in Spinal Cord Injury

Katherine A. Raichle, Marisol Hanley, Mark P. Jensen, Diana D. Cardenas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


The current study examined the utility of a biopsychosocial model of chronic pain, and the associations between specific pain-related beliefs, coping, and social support and both mental health and pain interference, in persons with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) and pain. A total of 157 patients completed surveys assessing physical and psychological functioning, as well as psychosocial, demographic, and injury-related variables. Greater catastrophizing and pain-related beliefs (eg, the belief that pain signals damage) were related with increased pain interference and poorer mental health, while coping styles (eg, resting, asking for assistance) were related only with pain interference. Alternatively, greater perceived social support was related with better mental health. The findings are consistent with a biopsychosocial model, implicating the need to consider the impact of process and clinical variables on adjustment to chronic pain in persons with SCI. Perspective: This article identifies several psychosocial variables, including coping, catastrophizing, pain-related beliefs, and social support that are related to adjustment in persons with SCI and pain. These results have implications for interventions designed to treat pain interference in persons with SCI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)718-729
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Pain
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2007


  • coping
  • Mental health
  • pain
  • spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Nursing(all)


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