Context: Acute infectious thyroiditis, particularly fungal thyroiditis, is rare and typically presents in immunocompromised individuals. Here we report the first case of coccidiomycosis thyroiditis occurring in an organ recipient as a consequence of likely allograft contamination and discuss the management strategies for thyroid masses in the setting of disseminated infection. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: In this clinical case seminar, we summarize the previously published cases of coccidiomycosis thyroiditis based on a MEDLINE search of all peer-reviewed publications (original articles and reviews) on this topic.Weidentified six other cases, five of which also occurred in immunocompromised hosts, although none occurred in organ recipients. Conclusion: A case of coccidiomycosis thyroiditis occurring in a post-liver transplant immunocompromised host is reported. Analysis of donor serum revealed the liver allograft as the likely infectious source, resulting in hematological spread to the thyroid. Although our patient's thyroid gland was lacking gross structural abnormalities at presentation, new-onset thyroid masses developed after relative immune restoration and initiation of antifungal therapies. The differential diagnosis of new-onset thyroid masses in immunocompromised hosts is discussed, with a focus on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The role of thyroidectomy in the management of fungal thyroiditis is also discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical