Purpose: We aimed to investigate genomic correlates underlying extremes of survivorship in metastatic colorectal cancer and their applicability in informing survival in distinct subsets of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Experimental Design: We examined differences in oncogenic somatic alterations between metastatic colorectal cancer cohorts demonstrating extremes of survivorship following complete metastasectomy: ≼2-year (n ¼ 17) and ≽10-year (n ¼ 18) survivors. Relevant genomic findings, and their association with overall survival (OS), were validated in two independent datasets of 935 stage IV and 443 resected stage I-IV patients. Results: In the extremes-of-survivorship cohort, significant co-occurrence of KRAS hotspot mutations and TP53 alterations was observed in ≼2-year survivors (P < 0.001). When validating these findings in the independent cohort of 935 stage IV patients, incorporation of the cumulative effect of any oncogenic Ras/B-raf (i.e., either KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF) and TP53 alteration generated three prognostic clusters: (i) TP53-altered alone (median OS, 132 months); (ii) Ras/B-raf-altered alone (65 months) or Ras/ B-raf- and TP53 pan-wild-type (60 months); and (iii) coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 (40 months; P < 0.0001). Coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 was independently associated with mortality (HR, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-3.21; P < 0.001). This molecular profile predicted survival in the second independent cohort of 443 resected stage I-IV patients. Coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 was associated with worse OS in patients with liver (n ¼ 490) and lung (n ¼ 172) but not peritoneal surface (n ¼ 149) metastases. Moreover, coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 tumors were significantly more likely to involve extrahepatic metastatic sites with limited salvage options. Conclusions: Genomic analysis of extremes of survivorship following colorectal cancer metastasectomy identifies a prognostic role for coaltered Ras/B-raf-TP53 and its association with distinct patterns of colorectal cancer metastasis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research