Traditional serum hormone testing in the evaluation of male infertility consists of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol. Based on these values, medical therapy is often initiated in an attempt to increase intratesticular testosterone levels and, in turn, promote spermatogenesis. While this hormone panel provides serum testosterone levels, it does not evaluate intratesticular testosterone, obviously an important factor that is critical for spermatogenesis. 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) is an intermediate in the steroidal pathway of cholesterol to testosterone conversion that has recently demonstrated promise as an accurate serum biomarker for intratesticular testosterone. At present, 17-OHP has not been widely adopted as a clinical tool in the evaluation of male infertility, which likely stems, in part, from a lack of concrete indications for its use. In this review, we present five commonly encountered scenarios of male infertility where the utilization of 17-OHP has aided in the management and provided a more personalized approach to treatment.
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