Clinical subtypes of anterocollis in parkinsonian syndromes

Gonzalo J. Revuelta, Michael Benatar, Alan Freeman, Thomas Wichmann, H. A. Jinnah, Mahlon R. DeLong, Stewart A. Factor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Disproportionate anterocollis is a debilitating condition which occurs in the later stages of parkinsonian syndromes and for which there is no effective therapy. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain its underlying etiology, including myopathy of the cervical extensors, and dystonia of the cervical flexors. Methods: We examined the records of 39 patients (8 prospectively) with anterocollis and parkinsonian syndromes to explore demographics, historical and clinical data, findings from electromyography and response to therapies. We classified our patients based on whether or not they were weak on neck extension and also based on primary diagnosis (PD vs atypical parkinsonian syndrome). Demographic, clinical, historical and EMG features are reported for each group. Results: There were no significant demographic differences between clinical subtypes, or primary diagnosis. Electromyographic (EMG) findings demonstrated myopathic changes in both groups, although they were more prominent in the group which was weak in extension. Historical features were similar between groups except for dopamine agonist use, which was more common in the myopathic subgroup (p = 0.02). There were no other significant clinical differences between clinical subtypes or primary diagnosis with the exception that patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes had more advanced motor symptoms. Conclusions: We conclude that anterocollis is a heterogeneous condition in which at least two distinct subtypes exist. Recognizing these subtypes may help guide therapy and future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-103
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the Neurological Sciences
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Apr 15 2012


  • Anterocollis
  • Dystonia
  • Head drop syndrome
  • Myopathy
  • Parkinson's disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


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