Clinical presentation and outcomes of COVID-19 following hematopoietic cell transplantation and cellular therapy

Jose F. Camargo, Maria A. Mendoza, Rick Lin, Ilona V. Moroz, Anthony D. Anderson, Michelle I. Morris, Yoichiro Natori, Akina Natori, Mohammed Raja, Lazaros Lekakis, Amer Beitinjaneh, Antonio Jimenez, Mark Goodman, Trent Wang, Krishna V. Komanduri, Denise Pereira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: One year into the pandemic, published data on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain limited. Methods: Single-center retrospective cohort study of adult HCT recipients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Results: Twenty-eight consecutive transplantation and cellular therapy patients (autologous, n = 12; allogeneic, n = 15; chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy [CAR-T], n = 1) with COVID-19 were identified. The median age was 57 years. The median time from HCT to COVID-19 diagnosis was 656 days (interquartile range [IQR], 33-1274). Patients were followed for a median of 59 days (IQR, 40-88). Among assessable patients (n = 19), 10 (53%) had documented virological clearance; median time to clearance was 34 days (range, 21-56). Out of 28, 12 (43%), 6 (21%), and 10 (36%) patients had mild, moderate, and severe/critical disease, respectively. Overall mortality was 25%, nearly identical for autologous and allogeneic HCT, and exclusively seen in hospitalized patients, older than 50 years of age with severe COVID-19. None of the patients with mild (n = 12) or moderate (n = 6) COVID-19 died whereas 7/10 patients (70%) with severe/critical COVID-19 died (P =.0001). Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 within 12 months of HCT exhibited higher mortality (57% vs 14%; P =.04). All-cause 30-day mortality (n = 4) was 14%. A higher proportion of patients who died within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis (3/4) were receiving ≥2 immunosuppressants, compared with patients who survived beyond 30 days after COVID-19 diagnosis (2/24; 75% vs. 8%; P =.01). Conclusions: Mortality in COVID-19 HCT patients is higher than that of the age-comparable general population and largely dependent on age, disease severity, timing from HCT, and intensity of immunosuppression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTransplant Infectious Disease
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • hematopoietic cell transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Transplantation

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