Clinical predictors of improvement after electroconvulsive therapy of patients with Schizophrenia, neurotic reactions, and affective disorders

M. Folstein, S. Folstein, P. R. McHugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations


Charts of 118 consecutive patients who received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were reviewed. Patients with a family history of mood disorder, suicide, or symptoms of hopelessness, worthlessness, or guilt improved after ECT, regardless of diagnostic label. Even schizophrenics with first rank symptoms improved if they had these depressive features as well. Patients without these features did not as a group improve, especially if they were diagnosed as schizophrenic or neurotic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-159
Number of pages13
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 1 1973


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry

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