Background: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes (MDS) are clinically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorders resulting from nuclear gene mutations. The affected individuals represent a notable reduction in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, which leads to malfunction of the components of the respiratory chain. MDS is classified according to the type of affected tissue; the most common type is hepatocerebral form, which is attributed to mutations in nuclear genes such as DGUOK and MPV17. These two genes encode mitochondrial proteins and play major roles in mtDNA synthesis. Case presentation: In this investigation patients in three families affected by hepatocerebral form of MDS who were initially diagnosed with tyrosinemia underwent full clinical evaluation. Furthermore, the causative mutations were identified using next generation sequencing and were subsequently validated using sanger sequencing. The effect of the mutations on the gene expression was also studied using real-time PCR. A pathogenic heterozygous frameshift deletion mutation in DGUOK gene was identified in parents of two affected patients (c.706-707 + 2 del: p.k236 fs) presenting with jaundice, impaired fetal growth, low-birth weight, and failure to thrive who died at the age of 3 and 6 months in family I. Moreover, a novel splice site mutation in MPV17 gene (c.461 + 1G > C) was identified in a patient with jaundice, muscle weakness, and failure to thrive who died due to hepatic failure at the age of 4 months. A 5-month-old infant presenting with jaundice, dark urine, poor sucking, and feeding problems was also identified to have another novel mutation in MPV17 gene leading to stop gain mutation (c.277C > T: p.(Gln93*)). Conclusions: These patients had overlapping clinical features with tyrosinemia. MDS should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of tyrosinemia.
- Mitochondrial disorders
- Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome
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