Circulating inflammatory monocytes contribute to impaired influenza vaccine responses in HIV-infected participants

Varghese K. George, Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, Lesley R. De Armas, Stefano Rinaldi, Li Pan, Savita Pahwa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objective: Antibody responses are often impaired in old age and in HIV-positive (HIV+) infection despite virologic control with antiretroviral therapy but innate immunologic determinants are not well understood. Design: Monocytes and natural killer cells were examined for relationships to age, HIV infection and influenza vaccine responses. Methods: Virologically suppressed HIV+ (n = 139) and HIV-negative (HIV-) (n = 137) participants classified by age as young (18-39 years), middle-Aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were evaluated preinfluenza and postinfluenza vaccination. Results: Prevaccination frequencies of inflammatory monocytes were highest in old HIV+ and HIV-, with old HIV+ exhibiting higher frequency of integrin CD11b on inflammatory monocytes that was correlated with age, expression of C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) and plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR1), with inverse correlation with postvaccination influenza H1N1 antibody titers. Higher frequencies of CD11b + inflammatory monocytes (CD11b hi, >48.4%) compared with low frequencies of CD11b + inflammatory monocytes (<15.8%) was associated with higher prevaccination frequencies of total and inflammatory monocytes and higher CCR2 MFI, higher plasma sTNFR1 and CXCL-10 with higher lipopolysaccharide stimulated expression of TNFα and IL-6, concomitant with lower postvaccination influenza antibody titers. In HIV+ CD11b hi expressers, the depletion of inflammatory monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells resulted in enhanced antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Immature CD56 hi natural killer cells were lower in young HIV+ compared with young HIV-participants. Conclusion: Perturbations of innate immunity and inflammation signified by high CD11b on inflammatory monocytes are exacerbated with aging in HIV+ and negatively impact immune function involved in Ab response to influenza vaccination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1219-1228
Number of pages10
Issue number10
StatePublished - Jun 19 2018


  • CD11b
  • HIV infection
  • aging
  • inflammation
  • inflammatory monocytes
  • seasonal influenza vaccination
  • vaccine responses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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