Purpose: Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but little data are available on the association between smoking and RCC biology. We investigated the association between cigarette smoking and RCC stage in a large contemporary multiethnic surgical cohort. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the demographic, clinical, and pathologic data of patients undergoing surgery for RCC between 2000 and 2009. Advanced RCC was defined as metastatic disease, pathologic stage ≥ T3, and/or lymph node involvement. Self-reported smoking history included smoking status, duration, intensity, cumulative exposure, and cessation. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between the groups in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of the 845 eligible patients, 19.4% and 29.1% were current and former smokers, respectively, and 207 patients (24.5%) had advanced disease. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, smoking was consistently associated with advanced RCC, and cessation reversed the risk. Current and former smokers had 1.5- and 1.6-fold increased odds of advanced disease, respectively. Heavier smoking (longer duration and exposure) was associated with increased risk of advanced RCC, whereas durable cessation reduced the odds of advanced disease. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for advanced RCC. Heavier smoking increases the likelihood of advanced disease. Durable smoking cessation attenuated the risk of advanced disease. Given that cigarette smoking is among the few modifiable risk factors for RCC, our results reinforce the importance of smoking cessation and encourage further investigation of the association between smoking and RCC biology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research