Cigarette smoking history and functional outcomes after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

Ching Jen Chen, Dale DIng, Natasha Ironside, Thomas J. Buell, Andrew M. Southerland, Sebastian Koch, Matthew Flaherty, Daniel Woo, Bradford B. Worrall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose - Although cigarette use may be a risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), animal models suggest that nicotine has a potential neuroprotective effect. The aim of this multicenter study is to determine the effect of smoking history on outcome in ICH patients. Methods - We analyzed prospectively collected data from the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage study and included patients with smoking status data in the analysis. Patients were dichotomized into nonsmokers versus ever-smokers, and the latter group was further categorized as former (>30 days before ICH) or current (≤30 days before ICH) smokers. The primary outcome was 90-day modified Rankin Scale score shift analysis. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and mortality, Barthel Index, and self-reported health status measures at 90 days. Results - The overall study cohort comprised 1509 nonsmokers and 1423 ever-smokers (841 former, 577 current, 5 unknown). No difference in primary outcome was observed between nonsmokers versus ever-smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.041; 95% CI, 0.904-1.199; P=0.577). No differences in primary outcome were observed between former (aOR, 0.932; 95% CI, 0.791-1.178; P=0.399) or current smokers (aOR, 1.178; 95% CI, 0.970-1.431; P=0.098) versus nonsmokers. Subgroup analyses by race/ethnicity demonstrated no differences in primary outcome when former and current smokers were compared with nonsmokers. Former, but not current, smokers had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (aOR, 0.695; 95% CI, 0.500-0.968; P=0.031), which was only observed in Hispanics (aOR, 0.533; 95% CI, 0.309-0.921; P=0.024). Differences in self-reported health status measures were only observed in whites. Conclusions - Cigarette smoking history does not seem to provide a beneficial effect on 90-day functional outcome in patients with ICH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)588-594
Number of pages7
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019


  • Bleed
  • Cigarette
  • Inflammation
  • Nicotine
  • Smoking
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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