Cigarette smoking among HIV+ men and women: Examining health, substance use, and psychosocial correlates across the smoking spectrum

Monica W Hooper, Peter A. Vanable, Michael P. Carey, Donald C. Blair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

87 Scopus citations


The prevalence of cigarette smoking among HIV+ individuals is greater than that found in the general population. However, factors related to smoking within this population are not well understood. This study examined the associations between smoking and demographic, medical, substance use, and psychosocial factors in a clinic-based sample of HIV+ men and women. Two hundred twelve participants completed self-report measures of tobacco use, HIV-related symptoms, viral load, CD4, alcohol and illicit drug use, depression, and social support. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analyses modeled the independent associations of the cross-sectional set of predictors with smoking status. Results indicated that 74% of the sample smoked at least one cigarette per day; using standard definitions, 23% of the sample were light smokers, 22% were moderate smokers, and 29% smoked heavily. Smoking was associated with more HIV-related symptoms, greater alcohol and marijuana use, and less social support. Light smoking was related to minority race/ethnicity and less income; moderate smoking was associated with less education; and heavy smoking was related to less education and younger age. Viral load, CD4 count, and depression were not associated with smoking status. Psychosocial interventions targeting this population should consider the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and smoking behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-383
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Behavioral Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2007
Externally publishedYes



  • Cigarette
  • HIV+
  • Smoking
  • Social support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Clinical Psychology

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