Hematopoiesis is a tightly regulated process involving the control of gene expression that directs the transition from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to terminally differentiated blood cells. In leukemia, the processes directing self-renewal, differentiation and progenitor cell expansion are disrupted, leading to the accumulation of immature, non-functioning malignant cells. Insights into these processes have come in stages, based on technological advances in genetic analyses, bioinformatics and biological sciences. The first cytogenetic studies of leukemic cells identified chromosomal translocations that generate oncogenic fusion proteins and most commonly affect regulators of transcription. This was followed by the discovery of recurrent somatic mutations in genes encoding regulators of the signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation and survival. Recently, studies of global changes in methylation and gene expression have led to the understanding that the output of transcriptional regulators and the proliferative signaling pathways are ultimately influenced by chromatin structure. Candidate gene, whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing studies have identified recurrent somatic mutations in genes encoding epigenetic modifiers in both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). In contrast to the two-hit model of leukemogenesis, emerging evidence suggests that these epigenetic modifiers represent a class of mutations that are critical to the development of leukemia and affect the regulation of various other oncogenic pathways. In this review, we discuss the range of recurrent, somatic mutations in epigenetic modifiers found in leukemia and how these modifiers relate to the classical leukemogenic pathways that lead to impaired cell differentiation and aberrant self-renewal and proliferation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research