Children and Sand Play: Screening of Potential Harmful Microorganisms in Sandboxes, Parks, and Beaches

Daniela Romão, Raquel Sabino, Cristina Veríssimo, Carla Viegas, Helena Barroso, Aida Duarte, Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Monika Novak Babič, Tal Marom, João Brandão

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sand serves as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Children, a high-risk group, can acquire infections from sand in sandboxes, recreational areas, and beaches. This paper reviews the microbes in sands, with an emphasis on fungi. Recreational areas and beach sands have been found to harbor many types of fungi and microbes. A newly emerging group of fungi of concern include the black yeast-like fungi. After establishing that sand is a reservoir for fungi, clinical manifestations of fungal infections are described with an emphasis on ocular and ear infections. Overall, we recommend environmental studies to develop monitoring strategies for sand and studies to evaluate the link between fungi exposure in sand and human health impacts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-163
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Fungal Infection Reports
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2 2015

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Keywords

  • Children
  • Fungi
  • Infection
  • Pathogenic microorganisms
  • Sand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Romão, D., Sabino, R., Veríssimo, C., Viegas, C., Barroso, H., Duarte, A., Solo-Gabriele, H. M., Gunde-Cimerman, N., Babič, M. N., Marom, T., & Brandão, J. (2015). Children and Sand Play: Screening of Potential Harmful Microorganisms in Sandboxes, Parks, and Beaches. Current Fungal Infection Reports, 9(3), 155-163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12281-015-0230-5