Purpose of reviewTakayasu arteritis is a rare chronic granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its branches. The purpose of this review is to unite the current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, cause, and epidemiology as well as diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this condition in children.Recent findingsAlthough the etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, studies suggest an autoimmune basis for the disease as well as a genetic predisposition. It is a disease primarily affecting young women with up to a third of cases with onset in childhood. There are distinct features of childhood-onset Takayasu arteritis (cTA) that merit this separate review. Diagnostic criteria and clinical manifestations are unique in pediatric patients with renovascular hypertension being the most prevalent presentation. Traditional treatments involving high-dose corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents are being reconsidered for less toxic contemporary biologic agents. Current algorithms for treatment include early introduction of corticosteroid-sparing agents, such as methotrexate or mycophenolate as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α ) inhibitor (infliximab, adalimumab) and/or interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor inhibitor (tocilizumab).SummaryEarly diagnosis of cTA with goals to develop effective and well tolerated treatment paradigms are essential to improve the long-term prognosis of this rare and devastating disease.
- childhood renovascular hypertension
- granulomatous vasculitis
- Takayasu arteritis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health