Child abuse and neglect is one of the most prevalent forms of trauma experienced in the modern world. The mechanisms by which various forms of child abuse increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders are believed to stem from their profound short- and long-term effects on the central nervous system and a multitude of peripheral organ systems. In this chapter, we focus on one of the most pivotal aspects of this paradigm, namely stress responsivity and how we may discern resilience mechanisms from the stress neurobiology of childhood abuse and neglect. A handful of such genetic polymorphisms subserving stress responsivity are reviewed here: 5HTTLPR, monoamine oxidase A, FKBP5, CRHR1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and OPRL1. Neuroinflammation increasingly appears to play a role in the development of psychiatric disorders, of which childhood abuse has been convincingly shown to affect a potentially maladaptive overall proinflammatory state. In the context of active stress resilience, there are multiple biological factors that appear to play a role: CRHR1, 5HTLLPR, BDNF, NPY, and DHEA to name a few. Determining biomarkers that contribute to psychiatric vulnerability as well as increase stress resilience is a major goal in the field of psychiatry, and we are optimistic that this research will translate into novel interventions to alleviate and prevent suffering from psychiatric disorders.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Stress Resilience|
|Subtitle of host publication||Molecular and Behavioral Aspects|
|Number of pages||16|
|State||Published - Nov 1 2019|
- Stress resilience
ASJC Scopus subject areas