Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) as a new method of signal obtainment in magnetic resonance molecular imaging in clinical and research practice

Anna Pankowska, Katarzyna Kochalska, Artur Łazorczyk, Katarzyna Dyndor, Paulina Kozioł, Bartosz Zieńczuk, Michal J Toborek, Radosław Pietura

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The work describes the physical basis of the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) technique; it presents the beginnings of the implementation of the method and its possible applications. The principles of correct data acquisition and possible solutions used during the design of the CEST sequence are shown. The main problems related to data analysis are indicated, and an example Z-spectrum from in vivo study of the rat brain is introduced. Furthermore, the parameters related to spectrum analyses such as magnetisation transfer asymmetry (MTRasym) and amide proton transfer asymmetry (APTasym) are presented. In the following part, different types of the CEST method often mentioned in the literature are discussed. Subsequently, the possible applications of the CEST method in both clinical and experimental practice are described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e147-e152
JournalPolish Journal of Radiology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes



  • ATP (amide proton transfer)
  • CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer)
  • Chemical exchange
  • Molecular imaging
  • Proton transfer
  • Z-spectrum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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