Characterization of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in the Yucatan Micropig Using Transcranial and Epidural Stimulation

Francisco D. Benavides, Andrea J. Santamaria, Nikita Bodoukhin, Luis G. Guada, Juan Solano, James D Guest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Yucatan micropigs have brain and spinal cord dimensions similar to humans and are useful for certain spinal cord injury (SCI) translational studies. Micropigs are readily trained in behavioral tasks, allowing consistent testing of locomotor loss and recovery. However, there has been little description of their motor and sensory pathway neurophysiology. We established methods to assess motor and sensory cortical evoked potentials in the anesthetized, uninjured state. We also evaluated epidurally evoked motor and sensory stimuli from the T6 and T9 levels, spanning the intended contusion injury epicenter. Response detection frequency, mean latency and amplitude values, and variability of evoked potentials were determined. Somatosensory evoked potentials were reliable and best detected during stimulation of peripheral nerve and epidural stimulation by referencing the lateral cortex to midline Fz. The most reliable hindlimb motor evoked potential (MEP) occurred in tibialis anterior. We found MEPs in forelimb muscles in response to thoracic epidural stimulation likely generated from propriospinal pathways. Cranially stimulated MEPs were easier to evoke in the upper limbs than in the hindlimbs. Autopsy studies revealed substantial variations in cortical morphology between animals. This electrophysiological study establishes that neurophysiological measures can be reliably obtained in micropigs in a time frame compatible with other experimental procedures, such as SCI and transplantation. It underscores the need to better understand the motor control pathways, including the corticospinal tract, to determine which therapeutics are suitable for testing in the pig model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2595-2608
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume34
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2017

Fingerprint

Efferent Pathways
Motor Evoked Potentials
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
Hindlimb
Spinal Cord Injuries
Evoked Potentials
Pyramidal Tracts
Neurophysiology
Forelimb
Contusions
Peripheral Nerves
Upper Extremity
Autopsy
Spinal Cord
Swine
Thorax
Transplantation
Muscles
Wounds and Injuries
Brain

Keywords

  • corticospinal
  • epidural
  • evoked potentials
  • porcine
  • propriospinal
  • spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Characterization of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in the Yucatan Micropig Using Transcranial and Epidural Stimulation. / Benavides, Francisco D.; Santamaria, Andrea J.; Bodoukhin, Nikita; Guada, Luis G.; Solano, Juan; Guest, James D.

In: Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 34, No. 18, 15.09.2017, p. 2595-2608.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Benavides, Francisco D. ; Santamaria, Andrea J. ; Bodoukhin, Nikita ; Guada, Luis G. ; Solano, Juan ; Guest, James D. / Characterization of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in the Yucatan Micropig Using Transcranial and Epidural Stimulation. In: Journal of Neurotrauma. 2017 ; Vol. 34, No. 18. pp. 2595-2608.
@article{0cb87a98d53a40dda9a1fe1b0f61dc83,
title = "Characterization of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in the Yucatan Micropig Using Transcranial and Epidural Stimulation",
abstract = "Yucatan micropigs have brain and spinal cord dimensions similar to humans and are useful for certain spinal cord injury (SCI) translational studies. Micropigs are readily trained in behavioral tasks, allowing consistent testing of locomotor loss and recovery. However, there has been little description of their motor and sensory pathway neurophysiology. We established methods to assess motor and sensory cortical evoked potentials in the anesthetized, uninjured state. We also evaluated epidurally evoked motor and sensory stimuli from the T6 and T9 levels, spanning the intended contusion injury epicenter. Response detection frequency, mean latency and amplitude values, and variability of evoked potentials were determined. Somatosensory evoked potentials were reliable and best detected during stimulation of peripheral nerve and epidural stimulation by referencing the lateral cortex to midline Fz. The most reliable hindlimb motor evoked potential (MEP) occurred in tibialis anterior. We found MEPs in forelimb muscles in response to thoracic epidural stimulation likely generated from propriospinal pathways. Cranially stimulated MEPs were easier to evoke in the upper limbs than in the hindlimbs. Autopsy studies revealed substantial variations in cortical morphology between animals. This electrophysiological study establishes that neurophysiological measures can be reliably obtained in micropigs in a time frame compatible with other experimental procedures, such as SCI and transplantation. It underscores the need to better understand the motor control pathways, including the corticospinal tract, to determine which therapeutics are suitable for testing in the pig model.",
keywords = "corticospinal, epidural, evoked potentials, porcine, propriospinal, spinal cord injury",
author = "Benavides, {Francisco D.} and Santamaria, {Andrea J.} and Nikita Bodoukhin and Guada, {Luis G.} and Juan Solano and Guest, {James D}",
year = "2017",
month = "9",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1089/neu.2016.4511",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "34",
pages = "2595--2608",
journal = "Journal of Neurotrauma",
issn = "0897-7151",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "18",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in the Yucatan Micropig Using Transcranial and Epidural Stimulation

AU - Benavides, Francisco D.

AU - Santamaria, Andrea J.

AU - Bodoukhin, Nikita

AU - Guada, Luis G.

AU - Solano, Juan

AU - Guest, James D

PY - 2017/9/15

Y1 - 2017/9/15

N2 - Yucatan micropigs have brain and spinal cord dimensions similar to humans and are useful for certain spinal cord injury (SCI) translational studies. Micropigs are readily trained in behavioral tasks, allowing consistent testing of locomotor loss and recovery. However, there has been little description of their motor and sensory pathway neurophysiology. We established methods to assess motor and sensory cortical evoked potentials in the anesthetized, uninjured state. We also evaluated epidurally evoked motor and sensory stimuli from the T6 and T9 levels, spanning the intended contusion injury epicenter. Response detection frequency, mean latency and amplitude values, and variability of evoked potentials were determined. Somatosensory evoked potentials were reliable and best detected during stimulation of peripheral nerve and epidural stimulation by referencing the lateral cortex to midline Fz. The most reliable hindlimb motor evoked potential (MEP) occurred in tibialis anterior. We found MEPs in forelimb muscles in response to thoracic epidural stimulation likely generated from propriospinal pathways. Cranially stimulated MEPs were easier to evoke in the upper limbs than in the hindlimbs. Autopsy studies revealed substantial variations in cortical morphology between animals. This electrophysiological study establishes that neurophysiological measures can be reliably obtained in micropigs in a time frame compatible with other experimental procedures, such as SCI and transplantation. It underscores the need to better understand the motor control pathways, including the corticospinal tract, to determine which therapeutics are suitable for testing in the pig model.

AB - Yucatan micropigs have brain and spinal cord dimensions similar to humans and are useful for certain spinal cord injury (SCI) translational studies. Micropigs are readily trained in behavioral tasks, allowing consistent testing of locomotor loss and recovery. However, there has been little description of their motor and sensory pathway neurophysiology. We established methods to assess motor and sensory cortical evoked potentials in the anesthetized, uninjured state. We also evaluated epidurally evoked motor and sensory stimuli from the T6 and T9 levels, spanning the intended contusion injury epicenter. Response detection frequency, mean latency and amplitude values, and variability of evoked potentials were determined. Somatosensory evoked potentials were reliable and best detected during stimulation of peripheral nerve and epidural stimulation by referencing the lateral cortex to midline Fz. The most reliable hindlimb motor evoked potential (MEP) occurred in tibialis anterior. We found MEPs in forelimb muscles in response to thoracic epidural stimulation likely generated from propriospinal pathways. Cranially stimulated MEPs were easier to evoke in the upper limbs than in the hindlimbs. Autopsy studies revealed substantial variations in cortical morphology between animals. This electrophysiological study establishes that neurophysiological measures can be reliably obtained in micropigs in a time frame compatible with other experimental procedures, such as SCI and transplantation. It underscores the need to better understand the motor control pathways, including the corticospinal tract, to determine which therapeutics are suitable for testing in the pig model.

KW - corticospinal

KW - epidural

KW - evoked potentials

KW - porcine

KW - propriospinal

KW - spinal cord injury

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85029216191&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85029216191&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/neu.2016.4511

DO - 10.1089/neu.2016.4511

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 2595

EP - 2608

JO - Journal of Neurotrauma

JF - Journal of Neurotrauma

SN - 0897-7151

IS - 18

ER -