Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya in preparation for malaria vaccine trials.

J. C. Beier, P. V. Perkins, F. K. Onyango, T. P. Gargan, C. N. Oster, R. E. Whitmire, D. K. Koech, C. R. Roberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

103 Scopus citations

Abstract

Malaria transmission was studied for 33 mo in the villages of Kisian and Saradidi in western Kenya in preparation for field trials of malaria vaccines. Abundance estimates of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu lato and Anopheles funestus Giles, which constituted over 99% of 26,645 anophelines collected, were compared for all-night biting collections inside houses, outdoors, and in tents. The overall numbers of Anopheles per man-night were 2.3 times greater in Kisian than in Saradidi. For the three types of collections, mean sporozoite rates by dissection ranged from 2.2 to 5.4% for 13,072 Anopheles in Kisian and from 9.9 to 13.6% for 7,058 Anopheles in Saradidi; greater than 90% of the infections were Plasmodium falciparum, either alone or mixed with P. malariae or P. ovale. Heaviest transmission from April to July coincided with the end of the long rainy season. Entomological inoculation rates (EIR) averaged 0.82 infective bites per man per night inside houses in Kisian and 0.65 in Saradidi. Outdoors, EIRs averaged 0.09 in Kisian and 0.52 in Saradidi. In tents, which were evaluated to identify methods for exposing nonindigenous volunteers during vaccine efficacy trials, EIRs were 3.3 and 2.5 times less than inside houses for Kisian (EIR = 0.25) and Saradidi (EIR = 0.26), respectively. Exposure in tents averaged one infective bite every 4.0 d in Kisian and every 3.8 d in Saradidi. The use of tents in vaccine efficacy trials should provide adequate exposure for nonindigenous volunteers. Malaria vaccine trials could be conducted efficiently in western Kenya, with timing dependent upon the intensity of transmission required by vaccine trial objectives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)570-577
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of medical entomology
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

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