Infection of macaque monkeys with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is probably the best animal model currently available for studying acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In this report, we describe three infectious molecular clones of SIV(mac) and one of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and their use in the study of cell and species specificity, animal infection, and the relationship of gene sequence to function. Replication of the cloned viruses in different cell lines varied dramatically. Some human CD4+ cell lines (HUT 78 and MT-4) supported the replication of SIV(mac) and HIV-2, while others (CEM and Jurkat-T) supported the replication of HIV-2 but not SIV(mac). Growth of cloned virus in macaque lymphocytes in vitro was predictive of macaque infection in vivo. Macaque lymphocytes supported the replication of SIV(mac)239 and SIV(mac)251 but not SIV(mac)142 or HIV-2ROD. Using virus recovery and antibody response as criteria for infection, macaques that received cloned SIV(mac)251 and SIV(mac)239 became infected, while macaques receiving cloned SIV(mac)142 and HIV-2ROD did not become infected. Nucleotide sequences from the envelope region of all four cloned viruses demonstrated that there is considerable flexibility in the location of the translational termination (stop) signal. These infectious molecular clones will be very useful for future studies directed at the molecular basis for persistence, pathogenicity, tropism, and cell and species specificity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science