Characterization of a nose-only Inhalation exposure system for ectromelia virus infection of mice

D. Saini, R. M. Buller, A. S. Biris, P. Biswas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


A nose-only inhalation exposure system (NOIES) was evaluated for its performance in this study using test polystyrene latex spheres (PLS) and ectromelia virus (ECTV), which is a surrogate for variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. The test aerosol sampled at the various ports of the NOIES was found to be consistent in particle size and number concentration. ECTV bio-aerosol was delivered to A/J mice strain and the lethal dose (LD50) value at which mortality was 50% was found to be 41PFU/mL. The airborne ECTV particles were sampled and collected on TEM grids for particle size imaging using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and structural integrity imaging using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM images of ECTV after aerosolization showed the virions to be coated with the smaller size solute particles generated from the buffer solution during the aerosolization process. TEM images showed the ECTV to be structurally intact after undergoing the process of aerosolization. From the viable ECTV particle size distribution, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the airborne ECTV particles was calculated to be 278nm with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.73.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)152-165
Number of pages14
JournalParticulate Science and Technology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Ectromelia virus bio-aerosol
  • Electron microscope imaging
  • Nose-only inhalation exposure system
  • Viable virus particle size distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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