Characterization and response of antioxidant systems in the tissues of the freshwater pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) during acute copper exposure

Gülüzar Atli, Martin Grosell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The response of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPX and glutathione reductase, GR) and non-enzymatic responses (glutathione, GSH, oxidized glutathione, GSSG and GSH/GSSG) against acute Cu toxicity (2-90 μg/mL for 48 h) in different tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis were measured. Incubation conditions for enzymatic activity measurements were optimized for L. stagnalis tissues. Three examined tissues, the hepatopancreas, the foot muscle and the mantle, exhibited variable responses in antioxidant parameters as a function of Cu concentrations. The most responsive antioxidant enzymes were GPX and CAT while GR appeared less sensitive. In general antioxidant enzymes at higher Cu concentrations though GSH levels at lower Cu concentrations exhibited the greatest changes in hepatopancreas and foot muscle, respectively. All antioxidant enzymes except GR increased after exposure to the highest Cu concentration in mantle. Total and reduced GSH increased in hepatopancreas but decreased with GSH/GSSG ratios at all Cu concentrations in foot muscle. The present results show that antioxidants respond to acute Cu exposure at concentrations as low as 2 μg Cu/L in adult L. stagnalis with variable responses in different tissues. Antioxidants both including enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters may account, in part, for the high tolerance to acute metal exposure observed in adult L. stagnalis and could form suited biomarkers to evaluate the metal exposure and toxicity in aquatic environment even at relatively low level short term exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-44
Number of pages7
JournalAquatic Toxicology
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016


  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Copper
  • GSH
  • GSSG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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