Changes in onset time of rocuronium in patients pretreated with ephedrine and esmolol - The role of cardiac output

T. Ezri, Peter Szmuk, R. D. Warters, R. E. Gebhard, E. G. Pivalizza, J. Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Scopus citations


Background: We investigated the hypothesis that manipulation of cardiac output (CO) with esmolol (Es) or ephedrine (E) affects the onset time of rocuronium. Methods: Following anesthesia induction, 33 patients received E (70 μg kg-1), Es (500 μg kg-1) or placebo (P) 30 s before rocuronium (0.6 mg kg-1) administration. Cardiac output was measured non-invasively after intubation every 3 min. The interval from the end of rocuronium administration to the disappearance of all twitches was considered to be the onset time. Results: Onset time was shorter after E (52.2±16.5 s) and longer after Es (114.3±11.1s) compared with P (87.4±7.3 s) (P < 0.0001). Cardiac output increased (P < 0.05) in group E for 15 min after rocuronium. In group Es, CO decreased (P < 0.05) at 3 and 6 min. Cardiac output was higher in group E vs. group Es, 3-6 min post administration of rocuronium (P=0.015). Conclusion: Pretreatment with E or Es appears to affect the onset time of rocuronium by altering CO as measured with the NICO™ (Non-Invasive Cardiac Output) monitor (Novametrix Medical Systems Inc., Willingford, CO).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1067-1072
Number of pages6
JournalActa Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003
Externally publishedYes



  • Ephedrine
  • Esmolol
  • Onset time
  • Rocuronium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this