Changes in El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions during the Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1) chronozone revealed by New Zealand tree-rings

Jonathan G. Palmer, Chris S M Turney, Edward R. Cook, Pavla Fenwick, Zoë Thomas, Gerhard Helle, Richard Jones, Amy C Clement, Alan Hogg, John Southon, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Richard Staff, Raimund Muscheler, Thierry Corrège, Quan Hua

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The warming trend at the end of the last glacial was disrupted by rapid cooling clearly identified in Greenland (Greenland Stadial 1 or GS-1) and Europe (Younger Dryas Stadial or YD). This reversal to glacial-like conditions is one of the best known examples of abrupt change but the exact timing and global spatial extent remain uncertain. Whilst the wider Atlantic region has a network of high-resolution proxy records spanning GS-1, the Pacific Ocean suffers from a scarcity of sub-decadally resolved sequences. Here we report the results from an investigation into a tree-ring chronology from northern New Zealand aimed at addressing the paucity of data. The conifer tree species kauri (Agathis australis) is known from contemporary studies to be sensitive to regional climate changes. An analysis of a ‘historic’ 452-year kauri chronology confirms a tropical-Pacific teleconnection via the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We then focus our study on a 1010-year sub-fossil kauri chronology that has been precisely dated by comprehensive radiocarbon dating and contains a striking ring-width downturn between ∼12,500 and 12,380 cal BP within GS-1. Wavelet analysis shows a marked increase in ENSO-like periodicities occurring after the downturn event. Comparison to low- and mid-latitude Pacific records suggests a coherency with ENSO and Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation change during this period. The driver(s) for this climate event remain unclear but may be related to solar changes that subsequently led to establishment and/or increased expression of ENSO across the mid-latitudes of the Pacific, seemingly independent of the Atlantic and polar regions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-155
Number of pages17
JournalQuaternary Science Reviews
Volume153
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

Fingerprint

Agathis australis
Southern Oscillation
Greenland
growth rings
tree ring
oscillation
New Zealand
chronology
event
climate change
driver
climate
wavelet analysis
teleconnection
Younger Dryas
radiocarbon dating
trend
Last Glacial
atmospheric circulation
Polar Regions

Keywords

  • Abrupt climate change
  • Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR)
  • Bipolar seesaw
  • Dendrochronology
  • Kauri (Agathis australis)
  • Last Termination
  • Younger Dryas (YD)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Archaeology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Archaeology
  • Geology

Cite this

Changes in El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions during the Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1) chronozone revealed by New Zealand tree-rings. / Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Chris S M; Cook, Edward R.; Fenwick, Pavla; Thomas, Zoë; Helle, Gerhard; Jones, Richard; Clement, Amy C; Hogg, Alan; Southon, John; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Staff, Richard; Muscheler, Raimund; Corrège, Thierry; Hua, Quan.

In: Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 153, 01.12.2016, p. 139-155.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Palmer, JG, Turney, CSM, Cook, ER, Fenwick, P, Thomas, Z, Helle, G, Jones, R, Clement, AC, Hogg, A, Southon, J, Bronk Ramsey, C, Staff, R, Muscheler, R, Corrège, T & Hua, Q 2016, 'Changes in El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions during the Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1) chronozone revealed by New Zealand tree-rings', Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 153, pp. 139-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.10.003
Palmer, Jonathan G. ; Turney, Chris S M ; Cook, Edward R. ; Fenwick, Pavla ; Thomas, Zoë ; Helle, Gerhard ; Jones, Richard ; Clement, Amy C ; Hogg, Alan ; Southon, John ; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher ; Staff, Richard ; Muscheler, Raimund ; Corrège, Thierry ; Hua, Quan. / Changes in El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions during the Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1) chronozone revealed by New Zealand tree-rings. In: Quaternary Science Reviews. 2016 ; Vol. 153. pp. 139-155.
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abstract = "The warming trend at the end of the last glacial was disrupted by rapid cooling clearly identified in Greenland (Greenland Stadial 1 or GS-1) and Europe (Younger Dryas Stadial or YD). This reversal to glacial-like conditions is one of the best known examples of abrupt change but the exact timing and global spatial extent remain uncertain. Whilst the wider Atlantic region has a network of high-resolution proxy records spanning GS-1, the Pacific Ocean suffers from a scarcity of sub-decadally resolved sequences. Here we report the results from an investigation into a tree-ring chronology from northern New Zealand aimed at addressing the paucity of data. The conifer tree species kauri (Agathis australis) is known from contemporary studies to be sensitive to regional climate changes. An analysis of a ‘historic’ 452-year kauri chronology confirms a tropical-Pacific teleconnection via the El Ni{\~n}o – Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We then focus our study on a 1010-year sub-fossil kauri chronology that has been precisely dated by comprehensive radiocarbon dating and contains a striking ring-width downturn between ∼12,500 and 12,380 cal BP within GS-1. Wavelet analysis shows a marked increase in ENSO-like periodicities occurring after the downturn event. Comparison to low- and mid-latitude Pacific records suggests a coherency with ENSO and Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation change during this period. The driver(s) for this climate event remain unclear but may be related to solar changes that subsequently led to establishment and/or increased expression of ENSO across the mid-latitudes of the Pacific, seemingly independent of the Atlantic and polar regions.",
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AU - Cook, Edward R.

AU - Fenwick, Pavla

AU - Thomas, Zoë

AU - Helle, Gerhard

AU - Jones, Richard

AU - Clement, Amy C

AU - Hogg, Alan

AU - Southon, John

AU - Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

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