Changes in amino acid neurotransmitters and cerebral blood flow in the ischemic penumbral region following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat: Correlation with histopathology

Kiyoshi Takagi, Myron D. Ginsberg, Mordecai Y.T. Globus, W. Dalton Dietrich, Elena Martinez, Susan Kraydieh, Raul Busto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

200 Scopus citations

Abstract

We simultaneously measured neurotransmitter amino acids by the microdialysis technique and cortical CBF by laser-Doppler flowmetry in the ischemic penumbral cortex of rats subjected to 2-h normothermic (36.5-37.5°C) transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) clipocclusion. Brains were perfusion-fixed 3 days later and infarct volume measured. CBF (% of preischemic values) fell to 32 ± 2% (mean ± SD) during ischemia and rose to 157 ± 68% during recirculation. Extracellular glutamate levels increased from a baseline value of 7 ± 3 μM to a peak value of 180 ± 247 μM 20-30 min following onset of ischemia but subsequently returned to near baseline levels after 70 min of ischemia despite ongoing MCA occlusion. The threshold CBF for moderate glutamate release was 489f. Massive glutamate release was seen during the first 60 min of MCA occlusion in the two animals showing the largest infarcts and occurred at CBF values ≤20% of control levels. Mean CBF during ischemia exhibited an inverse relationship with infarct volume, and the magnitude of glutamate release during ischemia was positively correlated with infarct volume. Extracellular γ-aminobutyrate and glycine changes were similar to those of glutamate but showed no significant correlation with infarct volume. These results suggest that (a) accumulation of extracellular glutamate is an important determinant of injury in the setting of reversible MCA occlusion and (b) reuptake systems for neurotransmitter amino acids may be functional in the penumbra during transient focal ischemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)575-585
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1993

Keywords

  • Cerebral blood flow
  • Glutamate
  • Ischemic penumbra
  • Neurotransmitter amino acids
  • Transient focal ischemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Neuroscience(all)

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